這是我以往教文法班時關代子句那一課的講義,因為很多同學對關代子句不甚了解,在這裏跟大家分享囉。
 
關係代名詞形容詞子句到底是什麼?
 
當我們想形容一個名詞時,可以用形容詞來形容它,譬如說:
I bought a new skirt. (我買了一件新裙子) 如果還要再加更多形容詞,可以再繼續往名詞的前面加。
譬如:
I bought a new denim skirt. (我買了一件新的牛仔裙)。
 
形容詞的位置跟中文一樣,是在名詞的前面。但如果我們想比較複雜的形容一樣東西,譬如說:我買了一件進口自義大利的新的牛仔裙,因為這個形容詞牽涉到另一個動詞 (進口自~),帶出了新的句子(稱之為子句),我們就不能在名詞前面亂加了。
 
這時候,我們必須把這個新的句子放在名詞的後面,變成:
I bought a new denim skirt (which was imported from Italy).
從which到後面,就叫做「關係代名詞形容詞子句」。而這個被子句形容的名詞,我們稱之為「先行詞」。這些幫忙帶出「形容詞子句」的「關係代名詞」,最常見的有:who, which, whose跟that。
 
★以who代出形容詞子句 (先形詞:人,主格):
This is the woman who called this morning. 這位就是今天早上打電話來的人。
He is the boy who broke the window. 他就是那個打破窗戶的男孩。
Kate is a girl who has blue eyes. Kate是一個有藍眼睛的女孩。
I really don't like people who complain about everything. 我實在不喜歡什麼都要抱怨的人。
 
★以who/whom代出形容詞子句 (先形詞:人,受格):
This is the woman who/whom John was talking about. 這個就是John在講的那個女人。
I know the man who/whom you met this morning. 我認識你今天早上遇見的那個男人。
Cai (蔡英文) is the first female president who Taiwanese people elected. 蔡英文是台灣人第一個選出的女總統。
 
★以which代出形容詞子句 (先形詞:物,主/受格):
The dog which bit you is Kelly’s pet. 咬你的那隻狗是Kelly的寵物。
He bought a bike which runs really fast. 他買了一台跑得很快的腳踏車。
This is a movie which I love. 這是我愛的一部片子。
The mail which I sent this morning was for my teacher. 我今天早上寄的那郵件是給我的老師的。
 
★that可以替代關係代名詞who, whom及which (不管是主格還受格):
This is the woman that called this morning.
This is the woman that John was talking about.
The dog that bit you is Kelly’s pet.
This is a movie that I love.
 
★如果關係代名詞代表的是主格,不可省略;但如果代表的是受格,則可以省:
This is the woman that called this morning. (不可省)
I know the man (that) you met this morning. (可省)
Kate is a girl who has blue eyes. ( )
This is a movie which I love. ( )
I lost the hat that I borrowed from my friend. ( )
The man who works at the bookstore is my uncle. ( )
 
★以whose代出形容詞子句 (先形詞:人,所有格):
I know a boy whose name is Ken. 我認識一個名叫Ken的男孩。
The house whose door is red is Mrs. Johnson’s. 那個有紅色門的房子是Johnson太太的。
 
★關代一定要用that的句子:
1. 句子裏有最高級形容詞:
She is the cutest girl that I’ve seen.
她是我見過最可愛的女孩。
 
2. 先行詞是人+動物:
Did you see the boy and his dog that were crossing the street? 你有看到那個過馬路的男孩跟他的狗嗎?
 
3. 句子裏有the same (the only, the very, any, all):
This is the only watch that I have. 這是我唯一擁有的一隻錶。
 
4. 句子裏有序數:
He is the first man that told me about it. 他是第一個告訴我的男人。
 
5. 前面有用過which或who的句子:
Who is the girl (that is) speaking to him? 那個正在跟他講話的女生是誰?
Which is the jacket (that) you like best? 你最喜歡的夾克是哪一件?
 
★其他關代where, why:
This is the reason why I was upset. 這就是為什麼我會生氣的原因。
I went to the place where I lost my purse. 我去了那個我掉錢包的地方。
 
練習題
A. 畫出先行詞, 再選擇答案(可複選):
1. The woman (who, which, Ø) lives next door is a doctor.
2. My father works for a company (who, which, that) makes furniture.
3. A dictionary is a book (whom, which, that) gives you the meaning of words.
4. Do you know the person (who, whose, Ø) car is there?
5. An architect is someone (who, that, Ø) designs buildings.
6. What happened to the money (whom, which, that) was on the table?
7. It’s the worst movie (which, that, Ø) I’ve ever seen.
8. What’s the name of the horse (who, which, that) won the race?
9. The dress (who, which, Ø) I wanted to buy was sold to someone else.
10. This restaurant doesn’t have anything (which, that, Ø) I want.
 
B. 填充題 (填入who, whom, which, that, whose或是Ø), 再畫出形容詞子句:
1. The old man ________ is sitting there is my grandfather.
2. Where is the cheese ________ was in the fridge?
3. I don’t like the girl ________ lives upstairs.
4. The book is about a man and his donkey ________ lived in a village.
5. Jack is the first man ________ climbed to the top of that mountain.
6. The police have found the man ________ car was stolen.
7. Do you like the dress ________ your mom bought for you?
 
C. 造句練習:
1. 少運動的人較容易得癌症。
2. 吸煙的人較容易得心血管疾病。
3. 科學家是研究自然科學的人。
4. 沒有批判性思考的人較容易受人操控。
5. 孩子們需要的是一個充滿愛與關懷的家庭。
 
我好像要寫答案后?不然同學怎樣知道自己對不對。。。唉,時間時間我沒有時間啊!!!
 
 
 

May Lin (leedsmayi@gmail.com) 歡迎加入Leeds Mayi臉書粉絲頁 

 英國里茲大學教育所英語教學碩士  

■ 著有「連面試官都讚嘆的英語口試應考大全」一書  

 主修各種英語教學法 (TESOL methodology)、評估與考試 (evaluation & testing)、英語教材設計與研發 (syllabus & curriculum design)  

 留英考試-雅思專家  

■ 擅長批判性思考、專門對付台灣學生無思路、沒有梗的症頭 

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