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關代子句之一

關代子句之二

 

這篇文章只是我眾多的寫作佳句介紹的其中一篇,想看其他寫作佳句文請點這裹。還沒有看過關代子句一二的同學請務必先看過再往下閱讀。

 

今天推薦的文章是這篇-Coral can help sunburn prevention(「珊瑚可以幫助預防曬傷」)文章中有好幾句「關代子句」跟關代被省略後的「分詞構句」的句型:

原句:

*Coral is an animal that thrives in shallow water, where it can absorb vital sunlight, but that also makes it vulnerable to strong ultraviolet rays.

分析:

Coral is an animal (that thrives in shallow water)-> 限定關代子句, (where it can absorb vital sunlight, but that also makes it vulnerable to strong ultraviolet rays)-> 非限定關代子句限定指的是是沒有它會死,非限定是沒有它也不會怎樣。

珊瑚是一種在淺水中繁殖茂盛的動物,在淺水中它可以吸收重要的陽光,但同時也讓它容易受到強烈的紫外線傷害。

 

原句:

* It's long been known that algae living inside coral produces a sunscreen that protects it.

分析:

* It's long been known that (名詞子句開始  algae (living 省略關代/主動動詞加ing形式  inside coral) produces a sunscreen (that protects it).

有一件事我們已經知道很久了-住在珊瑚裹的海藻會產生一種保護珊瑚的防曬物質。

 

原句:

*After studying samples from the Great Barrier Reef, they found that fish feeding off the coral are also able to withstand powerful ultraviolet rays, leading them to believe that the protective amino acids - the key ingredient - pass up the food chain.

分析:

*After studying (省略跟主要子句相同之主詞they/主動動詞加ing形式) samples from the Great Barrier Reef, they found that (名詞子句開始  fish feeding (省略關代/主動動詞加ing形式) off the coral are also able to withstand powerful ultraviolet rays, leading (省略關代which/主動動詞加ing形式) them to believe that (名詞子句開始the protective amino acids - the key ingredient (同位格)- pass up the food chain). 

在研究過來自大堡碓的樣本之後,他們(科學家)發現吃珊瑚礁的魚也同樣可以忍受強烈的紫外線,這件事讓他們相信這種保護性的氨基酸-關鍵的原素-是可以透過食物鍊傳遞的。

 

提醒:這些句型有相當高的難度,初學者先看得懂就夠了。已經有中高級程度的同學(完全懂關代用法的同學)才有可能造出沒有文法錯的句子。而即便如此,要造出有意義的而非刻意一定要寫出這個句型硬要寫出的句子,又要符合文章上下文,需要花非常多的時間規畫,或是要有老師指導才行。許多同學故意想寫出關代或關代省略句型,反而都把一個好好的段落搞得支離破碎更看不懂,真心奉勸要小心使用。

 

造句舉例如下:

* A home is a place (where children learn basic manners such as respect, love and caring)-> 限定關代子句.

* People (who can speak a foreign language-> 關代子句) can have more job opportunities than people who cannot. 

* People (consuming huge amounts of fast food-> 關代子句) run a greater risk of developing conditions such as heart disease and obesity.

* Animals (living in extreme conditions-> 關代子句省略關代) often have special features (that help them survive-> )關代子句).

* Cancer is one of the most common diseases in modern society, (which kills millions of people each year-> 非限定關代子句).

* Many drivers use their mobile phones while driving, causing (關代子句省略關代) increasing numbers of road accidents.

 

甚至可以結合以上兩者來造句:

* People (living a hectic lifestyle關代子句) run a greater risk of developing conditions such as heart disease, (which is a common problem in many countries)-> 非限定關代子句.

* Scientists have discovered the cure for many diseases (which did not have cure-> 關代子句), leading (關代子句省略關代) to a much higher rate of recovery. 

* Many international developers build tourist villages in developing countries, (creating more job opportunities for local people-> 關代子句省略關代. 

長期累積下來,對英文的學術句型越來越熟悉以後,當然就可以寫出自然不造作的英文寫作。千萬不要硬抄連自己都不是很懂所謂來自名師的句子(例如:A glance of the table... Given is a chart showing...),那樣的學習態度大有問題,硬要背出來但是又寫錯只會貽笑大方的。

 

May Lin (auntleedy@gmail.com) 歡迎加入Leeds Mayi臉書粉絲頁  

 英國里茲大學教育所英語教學碩士   

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  • Demi
  • 請問如何區分限定關代?
  • 限定跟非限定關代的區分在網路上跟各種文法書上的中英文資料很多很多,也不難了解,同學可以先找看看。我工作繁重時間有限,只能先教「一般教材比較沒有在教的分詞構句」了。

    Leeds Mayi 於 2014/10/21 11:49 回覆

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