這是我文法班教關代子句時的講義。在這裏跟大家分享。要先會這基本的關代子句概念才有辦法來討論關代的省略。也就是這篇文章教的東西。
 
關係代名詞形容詞子句到底是什麼?關係代名詞就是who, which, whom, that, whose, when, why, where這些字(注意,沒有what跟how。What跟how是疑問詞才有的)。關代同時也可以當疑問詞(例如Who are you?),所以很多學生就會一直把關代跟疑問詞搞混。其實簡單來說,可以想像成疑問詞的wh字是可以翻成中文的,例如Who are you? What do you do? Where are you? 這些wh字都有中文。但當成關代的時候,wh字就沒有中文的意思了
 
我們先複習一下形容詞的概念。
 
I bought a new skirt. (我買了一件裙子) 
 
I bought a new denim skirt. (我買了一件新的牛仔裙)。
 
英文形容詞的位置跟中文一樣是放在名詞的前面,你高興放幾個形容詞就可以放幾個。中文也會把高富帥三個形容詞像串燒一樣串在一起。但如果想比較複雜的形容一樣東西,而形容詞中牽扯到動詞的話,就不能再用中文的文法加字在名詞前面了。
 
我買了一件「進口自義大利的」新牛仔裙,牽涉到「進口」,關代就要出動了。
 
I bought a new denim skirt which was imported from Italy. 這句話從which開始到結尾,就叫做關係代名詞形容詞子句,因為它已不是只是形容詞而己,它是有主詞,有動詞的另一句話。子句的概念就是像貞子一樣,是附加在一句原本就完整的句子身上,所以才會叫子句。而因為牛仔褲這句話用到了被動式(「被進口」),所以不會被動式的同學又會再碰到另一個障礙。一定要先學會被動式才有辦法再繼續學關代,不然就會在一個惡夢中無限迴圈,不斷一直問為什麼這個句子沒有which,為什麼這個句子沒有is,沒有was,卻有pp。很多時候我被問到為何某句話沒有is/was的時候,我腦中閃過的是我一輩子所有的英文知識,學生可能不知道,他花一分鐘問這個問題,但需要多少時間才能真正了解為什麼。總之,如果講到這裹,同學還不具備基礎文法主詞+動詞的概念,或被動式be+pp的概念,我會建議先做一點功課再往下看。
 
常見的關代用法是這些:
 
★以who帶出形容詞子句 (先形詞:人,主格) 為何要知道主受格是因為牽扯到哪個關代可以省哪個不可省,下方有說明
I think it was your dad who phoned. 我想打來那位應該是你爸。
He is the boy who broke the window. 他就是那個打破窗戶的男孩。
I really don't like people who complain about everything. 我實在不喜歡什麼都要抱怨的人。
 
★以who/whom帶出形容詞子句 (先形詞:人,受格) 現在的英文很偷懶,whom幾乎都要變古人用法了
This is the woman who/whom John was talking about. 這個就是John在講的那個女人。
I know the man who/whom you met this morning. 我認識你今天早上遇見的那個男人。
This is James, who I told you about. 這位是James,我先前有跟你提過。
 
★以which帶出形容詞子句 (先形詞:物,主/受格)
The dog which bit you is Kelly’s pet. 咬你的那隻狗是Kelly的寵物。
He bought a bike which runs really fast. 他買了一台跑得很快的腳踏車。
This is a movie which I love. 這是我愛的一部片子。
The mail which I sent this morning was for my teacher. 我今天早上寄的那郵件是給我的老師的。
 
★that可以替代關係代名詞who, whom及which (不管是主格還受格)
This is the woman that called this morning.
This is the woman that John was talking about.
The dog that bit you is Kelly’s pet.
This is a movie that I love.
 
★如果關係代名詞代表的是主格,不可省略;但如果代表的是受格,則可以省。偷懶的想法就是關代後方若有別的主詞就可以被省
This is the woman that called this morning. (不可省)
I know the man (that) you met this morning. (可省)
Kate is a girl who has blue eyes. ( )
This is a movie which I love. ( )
I lost the hat that I borrowed from my friend. ( )
The man who works at the bookstore is my uncle. ( )
 
★以whose帶出形容詞子句 (先形詞:人,所有格):
I know a girl whose name is Imogen. 我認識一個名叫Imogen的女孩。
The house whose door is red is Mrs. Johnson’s. 那個有紅色門的房子是Johnson太太的。
 
 
★其他關代where, why:
This is the reason why I was upset. 這就是為什麼我會生氣的原因。
You should put the money in a savings account where it will earn interest. 你應該把錢放在存款戶頭,可以賺到利息。
 
 
這是練習題,下方有附答。
A. 畫出先行詞, 再選擇答案(可複選):
1. The woman (who, which, Ø) lives next door is a doctor.
2. My father works for a company (who, which, that) makes furniture.
3. A dictionary is a book (whom, which, that) gives you the meaning of words.
4. Do you know the person (who, whose, Ø) car is there?
5. An architect is someone (who, that, Ø) designs buildings.
6. What happened to the money (whom, which, that) was on the table?
7. It’s the worst movie (which, that, Ø) I’ve ever seen.
8. What’s the name of the horse (who, which, that) won the race?
9. People (who, which, Ø) work in the shop can buy our products at a discount. 
10. This restaurant doesn’t have anything (what, that, Ø) I want to try. [what根本不是關代,看得出題目很賤嗎?]
 
B. 填充題 (填入who, whom, which, that, whose或是Ø), 再畫出形容詞子句:
1. Do you like the dress ________ your mom bought for you? 
2. Where is the cheese ________ was in the fridge?
3. I don’t like the girl ________ sits next to me in my English class.
4. The book is about a man and his donkey ________ lived in a village.
5. He showed me around the museum, ________ was very kind of him.
6. The police have found the man ________ car was stolen.
7. She's one of those people ________ love to be the centre of attention. 
 
C. 造句練習:
1. 少運動的人較容易得癌症。
2. 吸煙的人較容易得心血管疾病。
3. 科學家是研究自然科學的人。
4. 沒有批判性思考的人較容易受人操控。
5. 孩子們需要的是一個充滿愛與關懷的家庭。
 
Answers:
A.
1. who
2. which, that
3. which, that
4. whose
5. who, that
6. which, that
7. that, Ø (較常被省略) (因為有最高級worst所以不能用which)
8. which, that
9. who
10. that, Ø
 
B. 
1. which/that/Ø (較常被省略)
2. which/that
3. who/that
4. that
5. which
6. whose
7. who/that(those~較常接who)
 
C. 這是許多回答方式的其中幾種,翻譯無正確答案
1. People who exercise less are more likely to get/suffer from cancer.
2. Smokers/People who smoke are more likely to get/suffer from heart disease. (假掰人可用cardiovascular disease,就確定你不要拼錯)
3. A scientist is someone who studies natural science.
4. People who are weak in critical thinking (skills) are more likely to be manipulated.
5. Children need a home that is full of love and care. 或 Chidren need a home with love and care. 有些時候with可以取代關代
 
 
 

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 英國里茲大學教育所英語教學碩士  

■ 著有「連面試官都讚嘆的英語口試應考大全」一書  

 主修各種英語教學法 (TESOL methodology)、評估與考試 (evaluation & testing)、英語教材設計與研發 (syllabus & curriculum design)  

 留英考試-雅思專家  

■ 擅長批判性思考、專門對付台灣學生無思路、沒有梗的症頭 

■ 教授雅思課程、文法課程及基礎發音課程

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