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IELTSWriting test task 1,最常考的圖表,就是line graph(折線圖)了。 

折線圖極簡單,其實只是在考數字的增加跟減少,但是我發現很多同學會亂用這兩個動詞,在「上升」跟「下降」前面亂加be動詞,或甚至亂寫ing形式。所以今天我們來學一下到底如何說數字的「上升」跟「下降」。 

注意:

1. 在當不及物動詞的時候,也就是大部份的IELTS考試中,這些代表「上升」跟「下降」,或「增加」跟「減少」的動詞,都 不會用到被動式,也就是說,不會出現這種 is/was increased 的瘋狂句型。不過,現在完成式 has/have increased 則是很常見的。請千萬不要搞錯這兩種時態。

2.  一般來說,「上升」跟「下降」就用 increase/decrease這兩個字就好了。不要在動詞這裏傷腦筋,硬想要用天下無敵的高級動詞。分數是看整體的,而小作文的TA重點著重在分析與比較,整篇文章全是數字,全是上升跟下降的各種動詞,仍然不會過,一定要把小作文的圖表做出精闢的分析才能得到高分。當然,同學若已經熟練了基本動詞,在GRA要追求高分勢必就要用到難一點的句型,例如用Ving或p.p.分詞開頭的分詞構句了(前提仍是你要會用,而不是亂寫一通,p.p.跟Ving寫錯真的就是完全看不懂了)。
 

3. 「上升」跟「下降」的動詞,也都可以當名詞來使用,但一旦變成名詞,因為他們是可數名詞,前面就要加a或an,譬如:一個明顯的增加=a significant increase。不然也可變成複數形。還有,他們也可以借去當形容詞,但會變形成V-ing或V-ed的形式,下面都有例句。

4. 除了「上升」跟「下降」之外,數字還常出現「波動」這個動詞fluctuate,其實用法跟「上升」跟「下降」是一樣的,它有有名詞 fluctuation下面都有例句。這些例句都來自牛津線上字同學們不妨勤勞一點多查。

 

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increase, increased, increased 

動詞 [verb] ~ (sth) (from A) (to B) ~ (sth) (by sth) to become or to make sth greater in amount, number, value, etc.:

The population has increased from 1.2 million to 1.8 million. (120萬增加到180萬, 切記, 這裏數字裏million不能加s!!!) 

The rate of inflation increased by 2%. (增加2%) 

The price of oil increased. 

Oil increased in price. 

Disability increases with age (= the older sb is, the more likely they are to be disabled). 

The cost of the project has increased dramatically/significantly since it began. 

 

[vn及物] We need to increase productivity. 

They’ve increased the price by 50%.  

 

也可以當形容詞 [adj.] [only before noun]: 

increased demand (已增加的需求)  

 

也可以當名詞 [noun] [CU] ~ (in sth) a rise in the amount, number or value of sth: 

an increase in spending (支出上的增加) 

an increase of 2p in the pound on income tax 

an increase of nearly 20% 

a significant / substantial increase in sales 

price / tax / wage increases 

Homelessness is on the increase (= increasing). 

 

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riserose, risen 

動詞 [verb]  to increase in amount or number: 

The price of gas rose. 

Gas rose in price. 

Unemployment rose (by) 3%. 

Air pollution has risen above an acceptable level. 

The day after the explosion the death toll had risen to 90.

Used car sales have risen because of the increased cost of new cars.

Employment levels are unlikely to rise significantly before the end of next year.

The number of business failures rose steeply last year.

The party's share of the vote rose from 11% in the last election to 21% this time. 

 

 

也可以當形容詞 [adj.] 

rising fuel bills (持續增加中的燃料費)

 

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decrease, decreased, decreased 

動詞 [verb] ~ (from sth) (to sth) to become or make sth become smaller in size, number, etc.:

The number of new students decreased from 210 to 160 this year. 

The price of wheat has decreased by 15%. 

This species of bird is decreasing in numbers every year. (逐年下降-現在進行式) 

Donations have decreased significantly over the past few years. 

 

[vn及物動詞] People should decrease the amount of fat they eat.

 

也可以當名詞 [noun] [CU] ~ (in sth)| ~ (of sth) the process of reducing sth or the amount that sth is reduced 

There has been some decrease in military spending this year. 

a decrease of nearly 6% in the number of visitors to the museum

 

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fall, fell, fallen

動詞 [verb] to decrease in amount, number or strength:

Their profits have fallen by 30 per cent.

Prices continued to fall on the stock market today.

The temperature fell sharply in the night. 

Salaries in the public sector are expected to fall by 15% this year.

The temperature has fallen below zero recently.

Inflation has fallen below 2%, and that's official. 

 

 

[vn及物動詞] 

Share prices fell 30p.

 

也可以當形容詞 [adj.]

falling birth rates 下降中的出生率

 

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fluctuate, fluctuated,  fluctuated

動詞 [v] ~ (between A and B) to change frequently in size, amount, quality, etc., especially from one extreme to another: 

fluctuating prices

During the crisis, oil prices fluctuated between $20 and $40 a barrel.

Temperatures can fluctuate by as much as 10 degrees.

My weight fluctuated wildly depending on how much I ate.

My mood seems to fluctuate from day to day.

The rate of inflation has been fluctuating around 4% for some time.

Vegetable prices fluctuate according to the season.

Her wages fluctuate between £150 and £200 a week.

 

 

 

也可以當名詞 noun [CU] ~ (in / of sth): 

wild fluctuations in interest rates (利率大幅的波動)

 

其他的好字還有soar, surge, rocket; plunge, plummet, etc. 但前提必須是你真的去查過了,真的用這些字以及知道這些很戲劇性的字使用的時機,不然亂寫會而更低分的!

 

 

May Lin (leedsmayi@gmail.com) 歡迎加入Leeds Mayi臉書粉絲頁   

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  • 不是你學生的ann~
  • 有夠認真阿MAY老師~~!!!!!
    同學們多多查字典很有用 . . .
  • 悄悄話